PsychrobacterDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus namePsychrobacter
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID497

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number1-6

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface

Scanning electron micrograph of strain NF23T. Cells were grown on TSB for 24 h at 15 °C. Bar = 2 microns - Source:3

Aerobic heterotroph
Nitrite reduction
Short-chain fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Members of the genus are strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophs, that possess a strictly oxidative metabolism 4 5. Preferred carbon sources are organic and amino acids 4. Carbohydrates are not utilized 4. The genome sequence of P. arcticus revealed that the species lacks the genes necessary for glycolysis and phosphotransferase system (PTS)-type sugar transporters, but possesses the enzymes needed for gluconeogenesis, supporting the observation that P. arcticus is not able to utilise sugars, but prefers oxidized substrates, namely acetate, as the preferred carbon and energy source 2. Little is known about the in situ physiology of Psychrobacter in activated sludge. Cells of isolates are coccobacilli which may appear as cocci or short to long rods 4 5, and can occur singly 6 7, in pairs 3 8, tetrads 8 or rarely in short chains 8 3 4.

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 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph45
Nitrite Reduction69
Sulfate Reduction
Short-chain Fatty Acids2121314151617181920
Proteins/Amino Acids151617

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge000

Predominant In-


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 497 -

[2] Ayala-del-Río, Chain, Grzymski, Ponder, Ivanova, Bergholz, et al. (2010): The genome sequence of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, a psychroactive Siberian permafrost bacterium, reveals mechanisms for adaptation to low-temperature growth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (7): 2304-12. doi:10.1128/AEM.02101-09

[3] Bozal, Montes, Tudela, Guinea (2003): Characterization of several Psychrobacter strains isolated from Antarctic environments and description of Psychrobacter luti sp. nov. and Psychrobacter fozii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53 (Pt 4): 1093-100. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02457-0

[4] Bowman, J.P. (2006) The Genus Psychrobacter. In: M. Dworkin., S. Falkow., E. Rosenberg., K-H. Schleifer., and E. Stackebrandt. The Prokaryotes. Volume 6: Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass, Pp 920-930. Springer, New York. - Bowman 2006 -

[5] Juni, E., and Heym, G.A. (1986) Psychrobacter immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov.: genospecies composed of Gram negative, aerobic oxidase-positive coccobacilli. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36(3): 388-391. - Juni And Heym 1986 -

[6] Deschaght, Janssens, Vaneechoutte, Wauters (2012): Psychrobacter isolates of human origin, other than Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, are predominantly Psychrobacter faecalis and Psychrobacter pulmonis, with emended description of P. faecalis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62 (Pt 3): 671-4. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.032631-0

[7] Shivaji, Reddy, Raghavan, Sarita, Delille (2004): Psychrobacter salsus sp. nov. and Psychrobacter adeliensis sp. nov. isolated from fast ice from Adelie Land, Antarctica. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 27 (6): 628-35. doi:10.1078/0723202042369956

[8] Bowman, Cavanagh, Austin, Sanderson (1996): Novel Psychrobacter species from Antarctic ornithogenic soils. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 (4): 841-8. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-4-841

[9] Romanenko, Schumann, Rohde, Lysenko, Mikhailov, Stackebrandt, et al. (2002): Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. and Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov., psychrophilic halophiles from marine environments. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 4): 1291-7. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-4-1291

[10] Maruyama, Honda, Yamamoto, Kitamura, Higashihara (2000): Phylogenetic analysis of psychrophilic bacteria isolated from the Japan Trench, including a description of the deep-sea species Psychrobacter pacificensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 Pt 2 (): 835-46. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-2-835

[11] Wirth, Ayala-del-Río, Cole, Kohlerschmidt, Musser, Sepúlveda-Torres, et al. (2012): Psychrobacter sanguinis sp. nov., recovered from four clinical specimens over a 4-year period. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62 (Pt 1): 49-54. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.029058-0

[12] Romanenko, Tanaka, Frolova, Mikhailov (2009): Psychrobacter fulvigenes sp. nov., isolated from a marine crustacean from the Sea of Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59 (Pt 6): 1480-6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.007195-0

[13] Baik, Park, Lim, Lee, Jeon, Kim, et al. (2010): Psychrobacter aestuarii sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60 (Pt 7): 1631-6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.016782-0

[14] Yoon, Lee, Yeo, Oh (2005): Psychrobacter aquimaris sp. nov. and Psychrobacter namhaensis sp. nov., isolated from sea water of the South Sea in Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 3): 1007-13. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63464-0

[15] Bakermans, Ayala-del-Río, Ponder, Vishnivetskaya, Gilichinsky, Thomashow, et al. (2006): Psychrobacter cryohalolentis sp. nov. and Psychrobacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from Siberian permafrost. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 6): 1285-91. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64043-0

[16] Kämpfer, Jerzak, Wilharm, Golke, Busse, Glaeser, et al. (2015): Psychrobacter ciconiae sp. nov., isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 65 (Pt 3): 772-7. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.000013

[17] Bowman, J.P., Nichols, D.S., and McMeekin, T. A. (1997) Psychrobacter glacinicola sp. nov., a halotolerant, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from Antarctic sea ice. System. Appl. Microbiol. 20(2): 209-215. - Bowman Et Al 1997 -

[18] Yoon, Kang, Park (2003): Psychrobacter jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53 (Pt 2): 449-54. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02242-0

[19] Yassin, Busse (2009): Psychrobacter lutiphocae sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of a seal. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59 (Pt 8): 2049-53. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.008706-0

[20] Yumoto, Hirota, Kimoto, Nodasaka, Matsuyama, Yoshimune, et al. (2010): Psychrobacter piscatorii sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium exhibiting high catalase activity isolated from an oxidative environment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60 (Pt 1): 205-8. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.010959-0

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