ArcobacterDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameArcobacter
Alternative namesCampylobacter nitrofigilis, C. cryaerophila
NCBI taxonomy ID28196

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number1-6

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface22

In situ hybridization of activated sludge with two probes for Arcobacter. Epifluorescence micrograph. Simultaneous hybridization with the probes ARC94 (fluorescein labeled, green) and ARC1430 (CT labeled, red) reveals a majority of bacteria which bind both probes (resulting in yellow). Note that some bacteria do not bind the oligonucleotide probe ARC94 and therefore appear only red. - Source:11

Aerobic heterotroph
Short-chain fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Commonly reported to be in municipal WWTP's 11 12. Fermenter of organic and amino acids 13 15. Carbohydrates are usually not utilized as carbon sources 13 15, but can be by some species. Optimal growth occurs under microaerophilic conditions 13 14 15 16 17 18, however aerobic 16 17 18 and anaerobic 19 16 10 growth is also possible. While members of the genus are typically chemoorganotrophs, autotrophic growth is also possible by some strains and species 20 10. Cells in pure culture and in situ are curved rods 13 15 11. Occasionally, some species may form chains or filaments of cells 10 19. A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii have been associated with human and animal diseases 24. A. butzleri is greatly reduced by wastewater treatment, but still detectable in effluent 25.

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FISH probes

Genus specific probes, ARC94 and ARC1430 11. The latter binds more cells than ARC94 11. Probes, 24-MER (specific for A. butzleri); 23-MER (targets A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, A. skirrowii and A. nitrofigilis); 27-MER (targets all of the above except A. nitrofigilis) 21.


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph10131516171819
Nitrite Reduction
Sulfate Reduction10
Short-chain Fatty Acids13151819
Proteins/Amino Acids10131518

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge00.10.5

Predominant InInfluent


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 28196 -

[2] Webb, Kruczkiewicz, Selinger, Inglis, Taboada (2015): Development of a comparative genomic fingerprinting assay for rapid and high resolution genotyping of Arcobacter butzleri. BMC Microbiol. 15 (): 94. doi:10.1186/s12866-015-0426-4

[3] Merga, Williams, Miller, Leatherbarrow, Bennett, Hall, et al. (2013): Exploring the diversity of Arcobacter butzleri from cattle in the UK using MLST and whole genome sequencing. PLoS ONE 8 (2): e55240. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055240

[4] Hamann, Gruber-Vodicka, Kleiner, Tegetmeyer, Riedel, Littmann, et al. (2016): Environmental Breviatea harbour mutualistic Arcobacter epibionts. Nature 534 (7606): 254-8. doi:10.1038/nature18297

[5] Adam, Whiteduck-Léveillée, Cloutier, Chen, Lewis, Lévesque, et al. (2014): Draft genome sequences of two arcobacter strains isolated from human feces. Genome Announc 2 (2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00113-14

[6] Toh, Sharma, Oshima, Kondo, Hattori, Ward, et al. (2011): Complete genome sequences of Arcobacter butzleri ED-1 and Arcobacter sp. strain L, both isolated from a microbial fuel cell. J. Bacteriol. 193 (22): 6411-2. doi:10.1128/JB.06084-11

[7] Pati, Gronow, Lapidus, Copeland, Glavina Del Rio, Nolan, et al. (2010): Complete genome sequence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis type strain (CI). Stand Genomic Sci 2 (3): 300-8. doi:10.4056/sigs.912121

[8] Adam, Whiteduck-Leveillee, Cloutier, Chen, Lewis, Lévesque, et al. (2014): Draft Genome Sequence of Arcobacter cibarius Strain LMG21996T, Isolated from Broiler Carcasses. Genome Announc 2 (1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00034-14

[9] Adam, Whiteduck-Leveillee, Cloutier, Tambong, Chen, Lewis, et al. (2014): Draft genome sequences of three arcobacter strains of pig and dairy cattle manure origin. Genome Announc 2 (3): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00377-14

[10] Roalkvam, Drønen, Stokke, Daae, Dahle, Steen, et al. (2015): Physiological and genomic characterization of Arcobacter anaerophilus IR-1 reveals new metabolic features in Epsilonproteobacteria. Front Microbiol 6 (): 987. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00987

[11] Snaidr, Amann, Huber, Ludwig, Schleifer (1997): Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria in activated sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (7): 2884-96.

[12] Stampi, De Luca, Varoli, Zanetti (1999): Occurrence, removal and seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters and Arcobacter in sewage sludge. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed 202 (1): 19-27.

[13] Vandamme, Falsen, Rossau, Hoste, Segers, Tytgat, et al. (1991): Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 (1): 88-103. doi:10.1099/00207713-41-1-88

[14] - -

[15] Vandamme, Vancanneyt, Pot, Mels, Hoste, Dewettinck, et al. (1992): Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Arcobacter with Arcobacter butzleri comb. nov. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42 (3): 344-56. doi:10.1099/00207713-42-3-344

[16] Levican, Rubio-Arcos, Martinez-Murcia, Collado, Figueras (2015): Arcobacter ebronensis sp. nov. and Arcobacter aquimarinus sp. nov., two new species isolated from marine environment. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 38 (1): 30-5. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2014.10.011

[17] Whiteduck-Léveillée, Whiteduck-Léveillée, Cloutier, Tambong, Xu, Topp, et al. (2015): Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov., isolated from pig and dairy cattle manure. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 65 (8): 2709-16. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.000318

[18] Zhang, Yu, Wang, Yu, Zhang (2016): sp. nov., isolated from seawater of the South Pacific Gyre. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66 (2): 542-547. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000751

[19] Sasi Jyothsna, Rahul, Ramaprasad, Sasikala, Ramana (2013): Arcobacter anaerophilus sp. nov., isolated from an estuarine sediment and emended description of the genus Arcobacter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (Pt 12): 4619-25. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.054155-0

[20] Wirsen, Sievert, Cavanaugh, Molyneaux, Ahmad, Taylor, et al. (2002): Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (1): 316-25.

[21] Wesley, Schroeder-Tucker, Baetz, Dewhirst, Paster (1995): Arcobacter-specific and Arcobacter butzleri-specific 16S rRNA-based DNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33 (7): 1691-8.

[22] Assanta, Roy, Lemay, Montpetit (2002): Attachment of Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, to water distribution pipe surfaces. J. Food Prot. 65 (8): 1240-7.

[23] Pérez-Cataluña, Salas-Massó, Diéguez, Balboa, Lema, Romalde, et al. (2018): Revisiting the Taxonomy of the Genus : Getting Order From the Chaos. Front Microbiol 9 (): 2077. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02077

[24] Ferreira, Queiroz, Oleastro, Domingues (2016): Insights in the pathogenesis and resistance of Arcobacter: A review. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 42 (3): 364-83. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2014.954523

[25] Webb, Taboada, Selinger, Boras, Inglis (2016): Efficacy of wastewater treatment on Arcobacter butzleri density and strain diversity. Water Res. 105 (): 291-296. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.09.003

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