Composite FISH micrographs of Rhodoferax-related (Rhod622) in a full-scale WWTP. Target cells in FISH micrograph overlays appear magenta [target probe (CY3 = red) + EUBmix (CY5 = blue)] and non-target blue (EUBmix only). Scale bar represents 20 microns. - Source:3Chemoautotroph/Mixotroph
Identified as denitrifiers in activated sludge, although additional unknown anaerobic activities are noted 3. Mostly present as single cells, loosely associated microcolonies throughout the flocs or appearing to grow on the surface of unidentified cylindrical natural fibres (10-50 × 1500 + μm) 3. They are able to utilise a range of different carbon sources, including amino acids, sugars and short chain fatty acids. Anaerobic uptake in the absence of added electron acceptors (nitrate or nitrite) is suggested to be due to a fermentative ability or the ability to utilise alternate residual electron acceptors such as Fe(III) 3 4.
The FISH probe used for in situ studies targets a broader clade than the genus Rhodoferax 3.
 Kaden, Spröer, Beyer, Krolla-Sidenstein (2014): Rhodoferax saidenbachensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, very slowly growing bacterium within the family Comamonadaceae, proposal of appropriate taxonomic position of Albidiferax ferrireducens strain T118T in the genus Rhodoferax and emended description of the genus Rhodoferax. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 64 (Pt 4): 1186-93. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.054031-0
 McIlroy, Starnawska, Starnawski, Saunders, Nierychlo, Nielsen, et al. (2016): Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems. Environ. Microbiol. 18 (1): 50-64. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12614
 Finneran, Johnsen, Lovley (2003): Rhodoferax ferrireducens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that oxidizes acetate with the reduction of Fe(III). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53 (Pt 3): 669-73. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02298-0
 Hiraishi, A., Hoshino, Y., Satoh, T. (1991) Rhodoferax fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium previously referred to as the "Rhodocyclus gelatinosus-like" group. Archives of microbiology. 155(4): 330-336. - Hiraishi 1991 -
 Madigan, Jung, Woese, Achenbach (2000): Rhodoferax antarcticus sp. nov., a moderately psychrophilic purple nonsulfur bacterium isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat. Arch. Microbiol. 173 (4): 269-77.