ZymomonasDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameZymomonas
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID541

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number2-7

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface13

Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Facultative anaerobe 14. Rod shaped, occurring singly, in pairs, rosette-like cell aggregrates, cell chains, or filamentous morphology 11 12 14. Chemoorganotrophic, growing on and fermenting 1 mol of glucose or fructose to almost 2 mol of ethanol, 2 mol of CO2, and some organic acids such as lactic acid 14. No detectable intracellular lipids, glycogen, or poly-β-hydroxybutyrate14. The in situ physiology of the genus in activated sludge has not been determined.

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 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph1112
Nitrite Reduction
Sulfate Reduction
Short-chain Fatty Acids
Proteins/Amino Acids1114

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge000

Predominant In-


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 541 -

[2] Kouvelis, Teshima, Bruce, Detter, Tapia, Han, et al. (2014): Finished Genome of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis Strain CP4, an Applied Ethanol Producer. Genome Announc 2 (1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00845-13

[3] Desiniotis, Kouvelis, Davenport, Bruce, Detter, Tapia, et al. (2012): Complete genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis centrotype ATCC 29191. J. Bacteriol. 194 (21): 5966-7. doi:10.1128/JB.01398-12

[4] Zhao, Bai, Zhao, Yang, Bai (2012): Draft genome sequence of the flocculating Zymomonas mobilis strain ZM401 (ATCC 31822). J. Bacteriol. 194 (24): 7008-9. doi:10.1128/JB.01947-12

[5] Pappas, Kouvelis, Saunders, Brettin, Bruce, Detter, et al. (2011): Genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis lectotype strain ATCC 10988. J. Bacteriol. 193 (18): 5051-2. doi:10.1128/JB.05395-11

[6] Kouvelis, Davenport, Brettin, Bruce, Detter, Han, et al. (2011): Genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. pomaceae lectotype strain ATCC 29192. J. Bacteriol. 193 (18): 5049-50. doi:10.1128/JB.05273-11

[7] Kouvelis, Saunders, Brettin, Bruce, Detter, Han, et al. (2009): Complete genome sequence of the ethanol producer Zymomonas mobilis NCIMB 11163. J. Bacteriol. 191 (22): 7140-1. doi:10.1128/JB.01084-09

[8] Yang, Pappas, Hauser, Land, Chen, Hurst, et al. (2009): Improved genome annotation for Zymomonas mobilis. Nat. Biotechnol. 27 (10): 893-4. doi:10.1038/nbt1009-893

[9] Seo, Chong, Park, Yoon, Jung, Kim, et al. (2005): The genome sequence of the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4. Nat. Biotechnol. 23 (1): 63-8. doi:10.1038/nbt1045

[10] Arvanitis, Pappas, Kolios, Afendra, Typas, Drainas, et al. (2000): Characterization and replication properties of the Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 plasmids pZMO1 and pZMO2. Plasmid 44 (2): 127-37. doi:10.1006/plas.2000.1480

[11] De Ley, J., and Swings, J. (1976) Phenotypic description, numerical analysis, and proposal for an improved taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Zymomonas kluyver and Van Niel 1936. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26(2): 146-157. - De Ley And Swings 1976 -

[12] Coton, Laplace, Auffray, Coton (2006): Polyphasic study of Zymomonas mobilis strains revealing the existence of a novel subspecies Z. mobilis subsp. francensis subsp. nov., isolated from French cider. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 1): 121-5. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63732-0

[13] Zikmanis, P., Shakirova, L., Auzina, L., Andersone, I. (2007) Hydrophobicity of bacteria Zymomonas mobilis under varied environmental conditions. Process Biochemistry. 42(4): 745-750. - Zikmanis Et Al 2007 -

[14] - -

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