Scanning electron micrographs of T. flocculiformis EchtT (a, b), L. pasteurii KoTa2T (c, d), ‘C. allantoicus ’ NDP (e, f ), growing on SR2A agar (a, c, e) and on R2A agar (b, d, f), showing the morphological variations in cell shape and arrangement of these organisms. Bar, 2 microns. - Source:1Aerobic heterotroph
Trichococcus are fermentative organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth 1 2 3. All species are mesophilic and psychrotolerant. Members of this genus have a pleomorphic cytology: the cells most commonly occur as regular spherical cocci, which become sometimes ovoid or elongated ‘rodlike’ due to the process of cell division. The cells occur singly, in pairs, in irregular clumps or as conglomerates, or in short or long chains. They are motile by means of peritrichous flagella 7. Some members of the genus have a filamentous morphotype and have been implicated in bulking 4. The cell wall usually stains as Gram-positive, but at a certain stage of growth it can express the Gram-negative reaction 7. High abundance in activated sludge is influenced by a high level of immigration from the influent. However a positive growth rate in activated sludge is noted 5.
NLIM1 91 4
 Liu, Tanner, Schumann, Weiss, McKenzie, Janssen, et al. (2002): Emended description of the genus Trichococcus, description of Trichococcus collinsii sp. nov., and reclassification of Lactosphaera pasteurii as Trichococcus pasteurii comb. nov. and of Ruminococcus palustris as Trichococcus palustris comb. nov. in the low-G+C gram-positive bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 4): 1113-26. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-4-1113
 Pikuta, Hoover, Bej, Marsic, Whitman, Krader, et al. (2006): Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov., a facultative anaerobe that grows at -5 degrees C, isolated from penguin guano in Chilean Patagonia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 9): 2055-62. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64225-0
 Liu, Burrell, Seviour, Soddell, Blackall, Seviour, et al. (2000): The filamentous bacterial morphotype 'Nostocoida limicola' I contains at least two previously described genera in the low G+C gram positive bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23 (4): 528-34. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(00)80027-2
 Liu, Seviour (2001): Design and application of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescent in situ identification of the filamentous bacterial morphotype Nostocoida limicola in activated sludge. Environ. Microbiol. 3 (9): 551-60.
 Saunders, Albertsen, Vollertsen, Nielsen (2016): The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms. ISME J 10 (1): 11-20. doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.117
 Scheff, G., Salcher, O., and Lingens, F. (1984) Trichococcus flocculiformis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gram positive filamentous bacterium isolated from bulking sludge. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19(2): 114-119. - Scheff Et Al 1984 -
 Jiang, Wang, Dong (2010): Methanol as the primary methanogenic and acetogenic precursor in the cold Zoige wetland at Tibetan plateau. Microb. Ecol. 60 (1): 206-13. doi:10.1007/s00248-009-9602-0
 Dai, Zhang, Li, Li, Deng, Wang, et al. (2018): Characterization of Trichococcus paludicola sp. nov. and Trichococcus alkaliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a high-elevation wetland, by phenotypic and genomic analyses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 68 (1): 99-105. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.002464